How does the Stock Market Work for Beginners

How does the Stock Market Work for Beginners : Hello, friends! Stock Market Manipulation. Insider Trading. How do some people exploit the stock market? What are the adverse effects of the stock market on a person and on society at large?

These are things that people rarely talk about. But these are very common. That’s why in today’s article on Finance, come, let’s see the dark side of the stock market. Don’t get me wrong.

How does the Stock Market Work for Beginners
How does the Stock Market Work for Beginners

Many of you might invest in the stock market, I do it too, so I’m not saying that the concept of the stock market is wrong, but the things that I’ll show you in this Article, will force you to think from a fresh perspective. And you’d be able to make better decisions when you invest your money in the stock market next time. Come, let’s see.

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How does the Stock Market Work for Beginners

Have you ever thought about it, friends? What is the need to have a stock market? Why do stock markets exist? What would happen if stock markets ceased to exist?

Why Stock Market Exists ?

There is a simple reason for it. Large companies need huge amounts of money for big projects. An amount of money that no individual owns singlehandedly.

So, through the stock market, people can invest their money in the companies, so that the companies get the funding for major projects and for new innovations. And in exchange for that, people get a share in the company’s ownership.

It means that when the company earns good profit in the future, you can get a part of it too. But if the company incurs a loss, you have to bear the risk. This is the basic funda behind the workings of the stock market.

But if you look at the stock market from the perspective of a common individual, a common investor looking to invest in the stock market, Suppose, you are an investor that wants to invest in the stock market. And you have the option of hundreds of companies. In which company would you invest your money? What would you consider before investing?

You’d ask which company would give you the most profit. For the money that you’d invest, which company would give you the highest return on investment? Which company would you bet on in this gamble?

Insider Trading :

If I tell you that I have the secret information about this Company X, that this company would soon get a big funding due to which, its stock price would increase rapidly in the future, so you should invest your money in this Company X.

And if I give this secret information to you only, wouldn’t this gamble be unfair for the rest of the people? Because they don’t have this secret information that the stock price of this company will soon go up.

Friends, this is the game of insider trading. Generally speaking, Insider Trading means making a profit by using such information, that is not available to the public.

This ‘Insider information’ can be leaked by any insider whether they are the employees of the company, or an executive of the company, or the accountant of the company, if they use this information to invest in the stock market, then it would be unfair. It would be Insider Trading.

And if they tell this information to a friend or an outsider that is not a part of the company, even then it would be termed Insider Trading. But it is not illegal to reveal this insider information in all cases.

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For Example :

Let’s take the example of a journalist. If a journalist is carrying out an investigation, and for that, he is analysing the insider information of the company, the earnings data or the profit data, that aren’t publicly available,  it is legal to do so.

Because the journalist is looking at the insider information only for his story as is his job. But if the journalist, during the course of his investigation, comes across the information that such and such accounts of the company are managed in a way that it can be reasonably predicted that the stock price of the company would go up or go down, and the journalist uses the information to earn a profit, then it would be Insider Trading.

Now you’d wonder friends, who’s checking if your friend is working in a company and he tells you the insider information secretly, and you use it to make a profit without anyone knowing. True, it is quite difficult to track these things. And for this reason, friends, stock market manipulation like this is very common.

Not only in India but in the rest of the whole world as well. In fact, not only this, to prove this type of stock market manipulation, that a crime has been committed, is extremely difficult. Because there is a lot of grey area in between.

Suppose you say that you got the information from someone else while travelling on the bus when they were talking to each other, that you didn’t try to get this information, you merely overheard someone else, then it isn’t illegal to overhear the information. If a large company does such things, then think how unfair it would be for the common investors..

The Profit Greed :

This was about how insiders can illegally exploit the stock market. But now let’s look at the decisions of common investors in the stock market and their negative consequences. Think about it. How does the Stock Market Work for Beginners

If you go to invest money in the stock market, what do you think about? Primarily, most of you think of profits only. This means that the rest of the aspects are merely ignored. Whether the company is doing good work, whether the ecosystem of the company is good or not, whether the impact of the company on the world is good or bad, these things are completely forgotten by most people.

For Example : How does the Stock Market Work for Beginners

I’ll use an example. Suppose a company engages in cost-cutting practices and cuts down on the employees’ salary, or fires some employees, and the other employees are working at exploitative salaries, doing so is good for the profits of the company, more money saved by the company means more profits.

And the investors of the company see only the profits. So they’d consider the practices good for them. And they’d want it to happen. This would give encouragement to the company to treat their employees worse. Or to pay them little.

Similarly, if a company is harming the environment, suppose it uses harmful chemicals to produce its products because it is cost-effective to do so, enabling the company to gain more profit.

Or they release their chemical exhaust into our rivers. Because processing the chemicals is expensive, leading to lesser profit.

Or they literally dump garbage around us, because it is expensive to process the garbage. That is allowed within the legal limits. These are detrimental to the world. But the people investing in the company, blinded by the profits, wouldn’t realise these things because they want their return on investment. And this leads to a major negative consequence.

The effect does it have on the end consumer shouldn’t be forgotten either. Because if the companies focus only on profits, they are encouraged to make greed-based products instead of need-based products.

For instance, your breakfast. Often companies market their products as something that you need to have with milk, but actually its 70% sugar, or the sugary cereals that you should eat in the mornings, because everyone eats it.

This impacts your health and obviously, the company ends up making a profit. But if you eat home-made food for breakfast like milk, lassi or porridge, no company would make a profit out of it. And neither would any shareholder get a return out of it.

So often people, knowingly or not, end up encouraging these things while investing their money. The simple solution to this is that thinks before you invest in the stock market about the company, you’re considering investing in. How are the products of the company? What is the impact of the company on our environment, our society, and on people, in general. Keep these things in mind.

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Herd Mentality :

The next problem is related to this. Most people investing in the stock market, run after the herd mentality. They don’t check the performance of the company themselves, the closing statements of the company, what the company actually does, they simply see that their friend has recommended investing in that company, or the company is discussed in the news and all the investors are talking about the company so they too should go ahead and invest in the company.

How is the buzz surrounding the company? It matters way more than the actual situation of the company. And there is a really simple reason behind doing so. The more people invest in the company, would drive up the share price of the company. And the return on your investment is also increased. How does the Stock Market Work for Beginners

So in a sense, the stock market is like fashion. What happens with fashion? I’d like to wear the clothes that others around me are wearing. That’s the trend today. It’s the same in the stock market. I’d buy those stocks that are purchased by the others. And if the others are selling a stock, I’d also sell it.

Consequently, the stock price or the share price of the companies doesn’t always depend on their performance instead, it depends upon the company image in the market. And the image can be built up and taken down quite easily by using PR machinery and advertisements. By employing paid news and brand ambassadors. All of these have a psychological impact that can eventually influence the stock price of the company.

Imagine I bought a lot of stock in a small company at a low price. And then, I go and pay news channels and print ads, employ PR machinery and run trends on Twitter that this company is about to get huge. Urging everyone to invest in it.

There’s a lot of positive publicity, because of this more people invest, and the stock price of the company goes up. I get a lot of profit and then I sell off my stocks. Suddenly, the stock price of the company would crash because I held majority shares or a significant amount of shares.

Pump and Dump :

Friends, this is known as the ‘Pump and Dump’ Scheme. First, pump the stock price into rising, and because you own a major portion of the stock, sell it off later. Dump it and then its stock price would go down crashing.

Do you know what’s interesting?

The same thing can be done in reverse as well. Basically, you can bet on a company performing terribly in the future. In such cases, you can buy Shorts, if you think that a company is going to perform badly in the future, and if this actually happens, you can earn profits off of it.

But imagine this, as I told you, Pump and Dump schemes are practiced, similarly, if you get a Troll army,  or use paid media systematically to malign a company, to a level that the investors lose their trust in the company, and its stock price crashes, if you had invested in Shorts, then you could earn profits from it. This is known as Short and Distort. Basically, it is the opposite of Pump and Dump.

And in a country like India, where rumours and fake news on WhatsApp spread like wildfire, you can imagine how easy it is to do so.

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Bubbles and Crashes :

stock market fair: Now, mix all the problems and manipulations and look at the chaos it creates. Imagine a company using stock manipulation tactics, to earn its profits. And since people are driven by profit-motive, people invest in it. And because people have a herd mentality, since one person is investing in it, the others would want to as well. Things worsen exponentially. The company earns more profits, the stock price goes up, people invest more in the company. And as long as people are unaware of the manipulation, the company ultimately benefits from it. And such things eventually create Stock Market Bubbles.

Shareholders, the people that have invested in the company, have never visited the headquarters of the company. They don’t know much about the company, about its performance, But the on-ground situation of the company  maybe really bad.

Often, there is corruption among the people in the company. They execute a scam to rob people of their money. And when such a bubble bursts regarding a large company, then the entire stock market crashes and often it may even lead to an economic crisis.

The biggest example of it is the 2008 Economic Crisis. It was created by the US Housing Bubble. After the 2008 Economic Crisis, people had raised their voices against Wall Street, and had even protested.

People questioned how it could be that the stock market is manipulated by these large companies in their favour and it is the common investor that bears the losses. On top of it, people found it irritating that the government had bailed out these large companies and banks.

Even after all they had done. Another interesting fact, it is said that Bitcoin was invented just after this. As a decentralised tool. People were fed up with the government’s central control over banks and the economy. So it is said to be one of the major reasons for making Bitcoin.

Bitcoin will not be controlled by any central bank or central agency. It will always be a decentralised tool, and will create an alternative financial system. The negative aspects of the stock market that I listed out in this article, most of them are valid for cryptocurrencies as well.

In cryptocurrencies as well, there have been several Pump and Dump schemes where people hype up a random coin keep a major share of it with them, and when the price increases, they Dump it and walk away with all the profit. Profit-motive and herd mentality are also evident in cryptocurrencies. How does the Stock Market Work for Beginners

When people invest their money in it. But one thing is certain, there is little to no scope of things like insider trading in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, because it is a decentralised thing it is not controlled by a central company. So no central company can manipulate it in a way that stock prices are manipulated. Despite all these, I wouldn’t tell you to give up investing in the stock market. It’s not so. I invest in it. It’s only that you should keep these things in mind.

Final Tip : share market kya hai

At the end of the article, I’d like to give you a final tip. Whether you’re investing in cryptocurrency or in the stock market, Remember one thing. Don’t ever take loans to invest. You should either have the required amount or a good enough savings balance, to invest that money. And if you don’t have it, don’t invest.

Because while investing in the stock market fair or cryptocurrencies, this is the last and a major negative aspect. Often people take loans to invest lose the money and can’t repay the loan, the stock market crashes, and then several people commit suicide because of it.

Apart from this, the points that I told you, keep them in mind while investing. I hope you found today’s article to be informative. If you liked it, comment below. On which other finance-related topics would you like a article? Let’s meet in the next article. Thank you very much.

Conclusion :

How does the Stock Market Work for Beginners :- I hope you guys you are enjoying this article and you will get all information about it.

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Dheeru Rajpoot

I am Dheeru Rajpoot an young Entrepreneur from Kanpur Utter Pradesh India. By Profession I’m a Blogger, Student, Computer Expert, SEO Optimizer. Google Adsense I have deep knowledge and am interested in following Services.